Welcome to the Forman Journal for Social Sciences. This journal was birthed out of the deep commitment of Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) to the liberal arts conversation between disciplines. While disciplinary journals have their important place in the academy, an interdisciplinary journal contributes to the grand conversation about truth. Truth, of course, is not restricted to socially constructed discipline silos that are cognitively convenient. This journal is designed to facilitate the promotion of knowledge across boundaries and so is poised to move an expansive dialog about the human condition forward in important ways.

As a social science journal, FJSS finds itself as part of the global community committed to probing the human condition along a spectrum of perspectives from individualistic to communal. The social sciences share a set of common commitments that are explored in these pages: truth, ethical integrity, empiricism, and compassion. I welcome you to participate in this conversation through your readership and through contributing to the high-quality scholarship of this publication.

Douglas E. Trimble, PhD (Social Psychology from Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA)

As Editor-in-Chief, I am pleased and indeed privileged to welcome you to our new journal, Forman Journal of Social Sciences (FJSS) and to introduce you to some of its salient features, though its website will describe a host of features at great length.

The FJSS is being published by the Faculty of Social Sciences of the Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), one of the oldest colleges in Lahore/ Pakistan, founded by Dr Charles W. Forman in 1864, as Mission College, to begin with.

In 1894, after Dr Forman’s death, the College was renamed ‘Forman Christian College’ in his honor and fond memory. The College moved to its present location in 1940 with a couple of social science subjects being taught already. It received the University Charter in 2003, to pursue both undergraduate and graduate degree programs, leading to PhD degree.

Soon after, the Faculty of Social Sciences was established which, presently, comprises six departments of Economics, Geography, History, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology. Forman Christian College University (FCCU) is the first and, so far, the only liberal arts university in the country. It is also a member of the Global Liberal Arts Alliance.

The FJSS will be a double-blind, peer-reviewed, and open-access journal and will cover various disciplines of social sciences and their related fields of interest including Anthropology, Archaeology, Demography and Population Studies, Economics, Geography, Gender Studies, History, International Relations, Political Science, Psychology, Public Policy, and Sociology.

The FJSS will be a bi-annual journal, published in June and December, and will carry Articles, Review Articles, and Book Reviews. It will follow the APA Style for citations and will be indexed in all major indexing databases of research. There will be no fee for submission or publication. The FJSS will be published in English and will be international in its scope, both in terms of contributions and the editorial composition. It will follow COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) to ensure the ethical integrity of the contributions for publication.

Its International Advisory Board comprises a distinguished group of scholars, authors, and indeed leaders of their disciplines. It includes Prof. Matthew Cook (presently President of the American Institute of Pakistan Studies), Prof. Roger D. Long, Prof. Ian Talbot, Prof. Iftikhar H. Malik, Prof. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, and Dr Ghazala Rehman.

The FJSS will not only strengthen the research capacity of social scientists in the Faculty of Social Sciences at FCCU but, hopefully, will also help boost institutional growth of social sciences in the country, indeed social sciences in general. Its interdisciplinary nature may help social scientists even find that their research overlaps with, even compliments, research conducted in another discipline. This may not only promote interdisciplinary research but also, in the process, international cooperation in academia and the academic world. If so, the journal will have served its purpose well.

Before I conclude, however, I would like to thank our Patron, Dr Douglas Trimble, for his encouragement and support, Managing Editor, Dr Muhammad Younis and Editor, Dr Sara Rizvi Jafree, for all their devotion, hard work, persistence, abilities, and skills for making it possible for us to prepare and launch this journal. The journal will be launched in December 2021. I really look forward to it with much anticipation and hope!

God bless.

Dr Sikandar Hayat

Distinguished Professor of History and Public Policy and Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences

Subject: Call for Papers for Inaugural Issue

The Forman Journal of Social Sciences (FJSS) is inviting papers for its inaugural issue (Vol. 1, Issue 1), which is scheduled to be published on December 15th, 2021. FJSS will be an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed international journal published by the Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan. FCCU is an independent liberal arts university located in Lahore, Pakistan, and founded in 1864.

The main objective of FJSS is to provide an intellectual platform for local and international scholars to promote original and valuable scholarship in the Social Sciences, including but not limited to subject areas of: Anthropology, Archaeology, Demography and Population Studies, Economics, Geography, Gender Studies, History, International Relations, Political Science, Psychology, Public Policy, and Sociology.

FJSS welcomes original articles, review articles, and book reviews.  All publications will be made available online. There are no submission or publication fees.

Date of Submission: August 31st, 2021

However, an early submission will get preference in lieu of external review process.

Submission: You may email your manuscript to the Editor at: editorfjss@fccollege.edu.pk

Journal Information and Author Instructions: For more information, about FJSS and author submission details please visit the official website of FJSS: https://www.fccollege.edu.pk/forman-journal-of-social-sciences/


Dr. Sikandar Hayat
Distinguished Professor of History and Public Policy
Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences
Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)
Email: sikandarhayat@fccollege.edu.pk

Contact information of Editorial Office

E-Building, Room 123; Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 Pakistan

About Journal

The Forman Journal of Social Sciences (FJSS) will be owned and published by Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) a registered entity, after requisite approval from the governing body. FCCU is an independent liberal arts university located in Lahore, Pakistan, and founded in 1864. As an official journal of FCCU, the Forman Journal of Social Sciences will publish multi-disciplinary scholarly work related to the social sciences. This will be a double-blind peer-reviewed and open-access journal, strictly following COPE’s (Committee on Publication Ethics) policies. The following nature of contributions will be solicited:

– Articles

– Review Articles

– Book Reviews

FJSS will be bi-annual (June and December), with a minimum of six articles per issue. No fee will be required from submitting authors for submission or publication.

Aims and Scope

The Forman Journal of Social Sciences will be a high quality academic journal devoted to disseminating research from the social sciences. The purpose will be to publish significant and valuable contributions for an informed audience including scholars, students and policy-makers. Publications will focus on research that advances knowledge and activates further research and publications.

The journal will aim to attract submissions both locally and internationally in order to reflect the academic and intellectual diversity of the social sciences, including but not limited to the main social science disciplines and fields of: Anthropology, Archaeology, Demography and Population Studies, Economics, Geography, Gender Studies, History, International Relations, Political Science, Psychology, Public Policy, and Sociology. Only unpublished material will be considered.


The Forman Journal of Social Sciences will be recognized and indexed through:

  • -Web of Science
  • -Scopus
  • -Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • -Crossref
  • -Google Scholar

Current Issue

(To be updated)


(To be updated)

Author Information and Instructions

Author submission requirements

The Forman Journal of Social Sciences welcomes submissions in all Social Science disciplines. The following guidelines are obligatory for all authors. Only manuscripts of good quality that are consistent with the aims and scope of FJSS will be accepted for review.

Before submission please ensure the following:

  • – You are submitting your original work
  • – The submission is not under consideration elsewhere
  • – This work has not been published elsewhere

Only original articles will be accepted and electronic submissions are mandatory.


Authors will be required to submit the following files in editable Microsoft Word files for processing in production:

  1. A Title Page– This file must contain:
  • – Full title (with minimum words that represent your study argument and design)
  • – Authors’ information (list the full names and institutional addresses for all authors)
  • – Indication of the Corresponding author
  • – Authors’ contributions
  • – Acknowledgements section


  1. Blinded Manuscript
  • –  The Articles must not be longer than 8,000 words, excluding references, tables and figures
  • –  The Review Articles should be 2,500-3,000 words
  • –  The Book Reviews should be 1,000-1,500 words
  • –  A 250-300 word structured abstract must be included (with: Background, Aim, Methods, Results, Conclusion)
  • –  Three to six Keywords must be included below the Abstract (The keywords will make your article searchable and discoverable)
  • –  All tables and figures must be numbered consecutively and referenced within the text


  1. Declarations Letter

This file must include the following information:

  • – An originality statement
  • – A conflict of interest statement
  • – Funding information
  • – Informed Consent
  • – Ethics Approval
  • – Data sharing and availability statement


  1. Supplementary material (optional)

This file may include:

  • – Consent letter
  • – Questionnaire
  • – Data-set
  • – Any other information the author(s) wish to submit


Article Preparation

Authors will be expected to comply with APA style guidelines for the submission of paper, tables, references, and figures. An annotated sample of a professional academic submission following APA guidelines can be found on: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/professional-annotated.pdf

Some main points include:

  • – Use Times New Romans Font with a 12 size font
  • – Double-space the text
  • – Use 1 inch margins
  • – Indent new paragraphs by 1/2 an in inch
  • – Include page numbers and line numbers
  • – Include any notes as Endnotes in 10 size font



APA style referencing must be followed. Guidelines for APA referencing can be found at: https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/reference-examples.pdf

Only articles, clinical trial registration records and abstracts that have been published or are in press, or are available through public e-print/preprint servers, may be cited. Unpublished abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications should not be included in the reference list.


Style and language

For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript author(s) will need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood.

If authors need help with writing in English and editing they must consider:

  • – Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker
  • – Using a professional language editing service or hiring a Editor

If your manuscript does not meet any of the above criterion or other standards deemed suitable by the Editor your submission will be returned with request for changes.


Publication Fee

There is no fee for submitting or publishing in FJSS.


Double-blind reviewing policy

FJSS will follow a double-blind review process, with both reviewers and authors remaining anonymous. The Journal will have an external peer review policy. Between 2-3 reviewers, who are experts in the subject area will be solicited for the external review process; with one reviewer belonging to the international community.

Editorial response

The Editor will respond within 14 working days of receipt with a confirmation of receipt and a tracking number for the submission. Including request for meeting minimum requirements for submission, external review, and request for revision, the final decision will be communicated to authors within 200 working days.


Editorial Workflow
A transparent editorial flow for review and response will be followed by the Forman Journal of Social Sciences as depicted in the figure below:

Editorial Team


Dr. Douglas E. Trimble

Vice Rector for Academic Affairs

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)


Editor in Chief

Dr. Sikandar Hayat

Distinguished Professor of History and Public Policy

Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)


Managing Editor

Dr. Muhammad Younis

Associate Professor

Department of Political Science

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)



Dr. Sara Rizvi Jafree

Associate Professor

Department of Sociology

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)

Members of the FCCU Editorial Board

Dr. Farzand Masih

Chair and Professor

Department of History

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)


Dr. Julie Flowerday


Department of Sociology

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)


Dr. Sarah Shahed


Department of Psychology

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)


Dr. Khadija Shakrullah

Associate Professor

Department of Geography

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)


Dr. Uzma Hanif

Assistant Professor

Department of Economics

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)


Dr. Zamurrad Awan

Assistant Professor

Department of Political Science

Forman Christian College (A Chartered University)

Members of the Advisory Board

International Advisory Board Members

– Prof. Dr. Matthew Cook

Professor of South Asian and Postcolonial Studies

North Carolina Central University, USA


– Prof. Dr. Roger D. Long

Professor Department of History and Philosophy

Eastern Michigan University, USA


– Prof. Dr. Ian Talbot

Professor in History of Modern South Asia

University of Southampton, UK


– Prof. Dr. Iftikhar H. Malik

Professor of History

College of Liberal Arts Bath Spa University, UK


– Prof. Dr. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer

Professor Department of Archaeology and Anthropology

Wisconsin University, USA


Dr. Ghazala Rehman

Consultant Clinical Psychologist and Director

Gazail Mental Health Services Limited

Surrey, United Kingdom


National Advisory Board Members

– Prof. Dr. Mumtaz Anwar Chaudhry

Professor and Chair of Business, Economics and Administrative Sciences

University of the Punjab


– Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zakria Zakar

Professor in Sociology and Public Health

Vice Chancellor

University of Okara


– Prof. Dr. Ruhi Khalid

Professor and Director Institute of Psychology

Beaconhouse National University


– Prof Dr. Safdar Ali Shirazi

Professor, Department of Geography

University of the Punjab


-Prof. Dr. Muhammad Iqbal Chawla

Former Dean, Faculty of Arts & Humanities

Former Professor and Chair, Department of History

University of the Punjab


– Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Khan

Former Chair Department of Political Science

University of the Punjab


FJSS adheres to all the ethical policies of HEC which have been developed keeping in view the COPE guidelines.

Editor(s) of FJSS will maintain the following ethics:

  • – The Editorial Board is responsible and committed to establishing and maintaining the quality of the journal.
  • – The Editorial Board has authority to accept or reject any submission keeping in view the publishing policy of the Journal and the quality of the submission.
  • – The Editorial Board will ensure the process of blind peer review of every article.
  • – The Editorial Board will not edit any submitted article which would have any conflict of interest.
  • – The Editorial Board will select articles for publication based on merit and disregard discriminating factors, e.g. gender, race, ethnicity, religious belief, cultural sentiments, political affiliation, seniority and/or institutional association of the author(s).
  • – The Editor in Chief will be responsible for appointing Members of the Editorial Board and Advisory Board and change them anytime.
  • – The Editor will ensure the Plagiarism Check of every article and strictly follows the HEC Plagiarism Policy.
  • – The Editor will ensure smooth functioning of the journal and conducting the editorial board meeting on regular basis.
  • – The Editor will try to promptly respond to the author(s) upon submission, and all queries related to submission or the Journal.
  • – The Editor will ensure the confidentiality of the content of manuscript prior to publishing.
  • – The Editor will be responsible for making any corrections, reported by authors or based on evidences at any time, after placing contents online or in hard copies.


Submitting Author(s) to FJSS will be required to maintain the following ethics:

  • – An Author (principal) is a person who has significantly authored the research article.
  • – Someone who has contributed particularly in any design, analysis etc. can be credited as co-author.
  • – The Authors(s) would be fully responsible for the originality and authenticity of their submission.
  • – Author contributions to the submission must be declared.
  • – Authors(s) are supposed to bind with Journal’s policy when submitting an article to FJSS.
  • – It is the Author(s) responsibility to ensure that their submission contains adequate detail and references to the sources of information in order to allow others to reproduce results.
  • – Article once submitted by the author to FJSS will not be submitted to any other journal till the time Corresponding Author is conveyed about rejection.
  • – If any question arises about the accuracy or validity of the research work during the review process, the Author(s) will be required to provide raw data to the Editor.
  • – The Author(s) must disclose any conflict of interest.
  • – The review process can last between 1-3 months or longer. During this period the Author(s) reserve the right to contact the Editor to ask about status of the review.
  • – In the case of rejection, the Author(s) reserves the right to publish the article elsewhere.
  • – In case of revisions, the Author(s) must provide an annotated response to reviewers indicating all changes and recommendations made in the revised submission.
  • – In case of dissatisfaction over the decision of rejection, the Author(s) can appeal the decision by contacting the Editor in Chief or Editor.


Reviewer(s) for FJSS will maintain the following ethics:

  • – Reviewers accepting to review a article for FJSS have an ethical responsibility to complete the evaluation professionally and with objectivity, without any personal criticism on the Author(s).
  • – Reviewer(s) must consider the article as a confidential document.
  • – Reviewer(s) must declare any conflicting interests.
  • – Reviewer(s) must act punctually and submit the review report on time; or inform Editor immediately about any possible delays and the revised timeline.
  • – Reviewer(s) must bring to the Editor’s notice if the article is based on any previous research study or if the work is plagiarized.
  • – Reviewer(s) must accept that the final decision about publishing an article will solely rest with the Editor, regardless of the reviewer recommendation.


  • – FJSS will check plagiarism with the Turnitin software, as recommended by HEC Pakistan.
  • – All submissions to FJSS must be free of plagiarism. Authors must declare that their work is original at the time of submission.
  • – Plagiarism includes copying the same content from another source or article including text, figures, tables or illustrations, without giving credit to the original source.
  • – Reuse of text that is copied from another source must be between quotes and the original source must be cited. However lengthy reuse of text is discouraged.
  • – If a study’s design or the manuscript’s structure or language has been inspired by previous works, these works must be explicitly cited.
  • – Self-Plagiarism or the intentional or unintentional reuse of one’s own copyrighted work without citing the original source is also not acceptable.
  • – Submissions with plagiarism will be rejected directly without any other justification.

Conflict of Interests

  • – Conflict of interest occurs when professional judgment concerning a primary interest (e.g.:-the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (e.g.:- financial gain).
  • – FJSS will manage conflicts through the following means:
    •      – Authors will be required to submit a conflict of interest statement. This statement will be included in the final publication.
    •      – All Editors and Reviewers will be asked to disclose conflict of interest. Substitute Editors and Reviewers will be assigned for the manuscript if there is a conflict.
    •      – All articles will be published with a statement and supporting documents.

Complaints and Misconduct

  • – FJSS is committed to research and publication integrity. Complaints about misconduct that affects the reliability of submission or published work will be dealt with duly, including allegations about fabrication or plagiarism.
  • – All complaints will be dealt with following HEC and COPE guidelines. Any type of complaints and grievances of authors can be addressed to the Editor in Chief or Editor. The complaint will first be acknowledged and a definite or interim response will be provided within 2 weeks, depending on the complaint.
  • – Based on FJSS Editorial Board counsel appropriate actions will be taken, including but not limited to: (i) contacting the submitting author(s) institute; and /or (ii) correction or retraction of the publication.

Copyright Policy

  • – All research articles published in FJSS will be fully open access.
  • – Copyrights of all articles published in FJSS are retained by the authors; with first publication rights granted to FJSS.
  • – The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work.

Source of Funding

  • – The FJSS is the official publication of Forman Christian College (A Chartered University).
  • – The Journal is funded by FCCU and there are no Author submission or publication fees.
  • – The FJSS does not take advertisements or any other sponsorships.